Communication Will Light the Way to True Participation In Development

Poonam rani

Abstract

Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions. But communication has played a significant role in development. The term “Development Communication” was first coined in 1972 by Nora C. Quebral, who defines the field as”the art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential.

Development Communication has been alternatively defined as a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development. Defined as the former, it often includes computerized linguistics analysis of verbatim responses to qualitative survey interviews and may, at times also involved consumer psychological “right brain” (emotional) research techniques. Defined at the latter, it refers to the practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bringabout positive social change.

Introduction

Communication has an important role to play in development. Without effective communication, no development can take place. Thus, Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity of communication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory development communication. The need for development communication continues since a large population, over 600 million, lives in rural areas and depends directly on agriculture. They all, and the urban slum dwellers, need government support in different forms.

Development programmes can only realize their full potential if knowledge and technology are shared effectively, and if populations are motivated and committed to achieve success. Unless people themselves are the driving force of their own development, no amount of investment or provision of technology and inputs will bring about any lasting improvements in their living standards.

Communication is central to this task in many ways. For example, it enables planners, when identifying and formulating development programmes, to consult with people in order to take into account their needs, attitudes and traditional knowledge. Only with communication will the project beneficiaries become the principal actors to make development programmes successful.

Helping people at all levels to communicate empowers them to recognise important issues and find common grounds for action, and builds a sense of identity and participation in order to implement their decisions.

On top of that, development involves change, new ways of doing things. Will people have the confidence to make a project work? Will they acquire the new knowledge and skills they need? How can barriers of illiteracy be overcome? Communication media and techniques can be powerful tools to advise people about new ideas and methods, to encourage adoption of those ideas and methods, and to improve training overall.

We live in a communication age, and the full impact of communication on development is just starting to be seen. Based on the experience of FAO and other agencies, communication for development has reached the stage where it can have a noticeable and rewarding effect on many development programmes.

Therefore, communication from the government remains highly relevant. In addition to the traditional ways, a new form of communication is being tried by the union government to support its developmental activities, though at a limited scale. Called Public Information Campaigns, public shows are organized in remote areas
where information on social and developmental schemes is given, seminars and workshops are held, villagers and their children are engaged in competitions, messages are given through entertainment shows. In addition, government organizations and corporate involved in rural businesses display their wares and services in stalls lining the main exhibition area. This approach brings various implementing agencies and service / goods providers while the information providers encourage the visitors to make the best use of various schemes and
services available. Some state governments have also adopted this model to take their development schemes to the masses. Community radio is another new medium getting a foothold in rural India, though in patches. NGOs and educational institutions are given license to set up a local community radio station to broadcast information, advisories and messages on developmental aspects. Participation of local community is encouraged. As community radio provides a platform to villagers to broadcast local issues, it has the potential to elicit positive action from local politicians and civil servants.

Well into the 21st century radio has had a strong presence in the development communication research and practice.

Specific issues to be focused on

  • The environment and its relation to sustainable agricultural development and food production present an enormous challenge. A prime consideration is the proper use and conservation of natural resources. These resources are often degraded at the hands of impoverished rural people who have no immediate alternative for meeting their needs for land on which to grow food, and for fuel wood. Their abuse of forest areas, with the negative consequences of soil erosion and dwindling water resources, will only be halted through new schemes of employment and income generation and through applying conservation techniques. Such solutions, however, will have to be made acceptable to local people, many of whom will need considerable encouragement and training in new skills.
  • Population growth is exerting pressure on natural resources, on food production and on the ability of governments to provide basic services and employment opportunities. Population growth depends on choices made by individuals. Helping people to make more informed choices by raising their awareness of the implications of family size and unwanted pregnancy, and of methods of contraception, requires much more than simply sending out messages. Instead it requires learning, from people and their leaders, how to make such issues socially acceptable and worthy of urgent action. Insights into people’s underlying attitudes are needed before they can be helped to change their views.
  • Rural poverty continues to increase in many countries, accelerating urban migration and creating intolerable economic and social problems. The solution, of course, lies in the development of rural areas. Most rural communities are characterized by reliance on traditional knowledge and production systems, based strictly on what has worked for survival in the past. This has led to a view that rural communities are resistant to change, even though their traditional wisdom has been hard-won and its reasoning is sound. Planners need to take this into account, as the first step of any planning exercise. For this, and for all rural development activities, communication between local communities and national planners and policy-makers is of vital importance but, unfortunately, in rural areas it is at its weakest.
  • Malnutrition is both a cause and a consequence of underdevelopment. Recent decades have seen consistent reductions in the daily per caput supply of calories in many countries. The International Conference on Nutrition held in December 1992 drew attention to the fact that more than 780 million people in the world suffer from chronic malnutrition and that, each year, some 13 million children below the age of five die from infectious diseases that can be directly or indirectly attributed to hunger or malnutrition. Nutritional well-being is not just a question of food availability and economics among families, however. It also depends on sufficient knowledge and acceptance of appropriate diets. At the planner’s level, incorporating nutritional concerns into development initiatives for agriculture, food security, forestry, land use, exports and so forth requires an increased awareness of nutritional priorities since these are not spontaneously identified in such disciplines.
  • Woman in development is another priority issue. In many countries, women shoulder most of the work in rural areas. Given the opportunity, women have shown themselves again and again to be highly responsive and responsible when helped to mobilize themselves, build upon available resources and produce sustainable results. Women need to learn additional technical and organisational skills and more women are needed at the centre of decision-making. Specific challenges where communication is vital include helping women’s groups to increase their self-determination and to broaden the dialogue between the sexes regarding rights, privileges and responsibilities.

Role of communication technology

The communication technology and know-how are available

We live in a communication era, with rapid expansion in the reach of mass media, and improved techniques for the interpersonal exchange of ideas. The advent of the cheap transistor radio, for example, has brought this medium to remote corners of even the least-developed countries, where a lack of electricity can be overcome by solar-powered transmitters and receivers.

Video provides a good example of the technological advances in the communication field. Little more than a decade ago, video was a bulky and expensive medium. Preparation of printed materials with type, graphics and photographs, has also been revolutionized. The use of computers for desktop publishing has sharply reduced costs and production time, providing much greater access and versatility.

Traditional and popular media such as folk theatre, dances, puppet shows and popular poetry, as well as rural press linked to literacy programmes, and audiovisual materials, can be highly effective channels for disseminating development information and for stimulating community action.

Much more is now known about the interpersonal communication skills development field workers need in order to function more effectively as agents of change with rural people. These skills include the use of techniques such as focus group discussions, illustrated discussion tools such as flipcharts that have been pretested to be effective for rural viewers, and other media such as video and audiovisuals that can be used to share ideas and cause reflection, or as part of a training methodology involving presentation, discussion and practice. Interpersonal communication skills can improve activities at all levels, enhancing management, teamwork and the morale of personnel.

Time for communication for development

Whether we come to see village learning centre’s equipped with a centrally linked computer terminal, or, instead, a more systematic use of traditional media for human development, the use of communication no longer depends on the availability of technology: it depends on the will and decisions of policymakers to exploit its potential. Already communication has been highly exploited for political and commercial aims. Now is the time for communication to be applied to development.

  • for better planning and programme formulation

In practical terms, effective planning must make a deliberate effort to determine what people want to do, can do and can continue to do in a sustainable way. To find this out, communication techniques go far beyond the simple question-and-answer survey. Meaningful discussion, generated by people trained in interpersonal communication skills, and audiovisual tools, such as video or radio, can help the community to identify its true problems and priorities and where its capabilities and needs lie. This self-analysis can help a community to generate realistic proposals for new development initiatives and stimulates tremendous interest to have these initiatives succeed.

The views of rural people can also guide prospective work plans, preventing them from moving in the wrong direction. A policy of communicating with people intensively before a development programme is even drafted, and taking into account their views, capabilities and needs as they see them, is the best insurance a planner can have.

  • for changing life-styles

Rural populations and women in particular, find it increasingly difficult to cope with rapidly changing social conditions, which often lead to the development of unsettling life-styles. For instance, in societies where marriage and childbearing no longer go together, the social and economic cost of teenage pregnancies weighs heavily on people’s, and the nation’s, resources. In others, rural youth, often from fatherless homes, increasingly rebels against parental poverty. Pressed by peers, teenagers often drop out of school, fall for drugs, or end up in the gangs of city slums.

Communication can focus on the long and sensitive process of changing behaviour and life-styles. Quite recent communication research methodologies make it possible to gain insight into the underlying reasons why people adopt a certain life-style.

Reference

http://www.wikipedia.com/developmentcommunication

http://www.fao.org/docrep/t1815e/t1815e03.htm

The idea for research paper is from site: http://www.ijpbs.net/vol-3/issue-1/bio/B-25.

Anuradha

ABSTRACT

Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions.

The term “Development Communication” was first coined in 1972 by Nora C. Quarrel, who defines the field as the art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential. Development Communication has been alternatively defined as a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development. It often includes computerized linguistics analysis of verbatim responses to qualitative survey interviews and may, at times also involved consumer psychological “right brain” (emotional) research techniques. It refers to the practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bring about positive social change. A decisive role can be played by communication in promoting human development in today’s new climate of social change. As the world moves towards greater democracy, decentralization and the market economy, conditions are becoming more favorable for the people to start steering their own course of change. But it is vital to stimulate their awareness, participation and capabilities. Communication skills and technology are central to this task, but at present are often underutilized. Policies are needed that encourage effective planning and implementation of communication program.

Introduction:

Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from the Latin word “communis”, meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Feedback is critical to effective communication between parties. The definition of communication is shared in the Webster’s Dictionary as “sending, giving, or exchanging information and ideas,” which is often expressed nonverbally and verbally.

The first major model for communication came in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories. The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person.

                                   Development

Development may refer to:

Contents

1 Land use

2 Science and technology

3 Social sciences

4 International and regional

5 Business and professional

6. Sustainable development

7. International development

8. Economic development

               Communication Development : History

The theories and practices of development communication sprang from the many challenges and opportunities that faced development oriented institutions in the last century. And since these institutions existed in different contexts, different schools of development communication have arisen in different places over time.

Manyozo (2006) suggests that the history field can be broken down into those of six different schools of development communication, with the Bretton Woods school being the dominant paradigm in international literature, and the other schools being the Latin American, Indian, Los Baños, African, and the participatory development communication schools.

The growing interest for these kind of applications is also reflected in the work of the World Bank, which is very active in promoting this field through its Development Communication division and recently (June 2008) published the Development Communication Sourcebook, a resource addressing the history, concepts and practical applications in this discipline. Communication for Social Change, referred to as communication for sustainable social change and development, involves the use of variety of communication techniques to address inefficient systems, processes, or modes of production within a specific location that has not incurred major technological advances. A possible strategy in achieving sustainability and development places the people of the community in the center of the communication process. This technique is also known as the participatory approach where interpersonal communication is exercised through community media. The members of the culture are agents of change as opposed to the outsiders who may provide any necessary tools. Technology then becomes implemented by people in their social and economic contexts and results in a major shaping process. The participatory approach can be combined with three other types of communicative methods to effectively invoke social change. These include: behavior change communication, mass communication, and advocacy communication.

             How the communications help in development?

Different types of mediums can be used in achieving governance, health and sustainable development. Old media can be combined with new media to educate specific populations. Information and communication technologies (ICT’s) in addition to multi-media are able to address visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners and prove to be an important contribution to economic growth. Questions need to be raised about who the stake holders, policy makers, partners and practitioners are and what their goals might be for the community seeking sustainable development. Oftentimes, those who set the agenda are the ones doing the funding for the project and may include international agencies, bilateral agencies, national authorities, NGOs, and local organizations.

Prior to the project, decision makers consider if introducing new technology will disrupt religion, language, political organization, economy, familial relations and social complexity of the targeted society. Other factors have to be acknowledged as well and may include already present policies and legislations, educational systems, service provisions, institutional and organizational constructions (in the forms of corruption, bureaucracy, etc.), socio-demographic and economic aspects, and the physical environment.

Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity of communication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory development communication.

The art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential. Development Communication has been alternatively defined as a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development. It often includes computerized linguistics analysis of verbatim responses to qualitative survey interviews and may, at times also involved consumer psychological “right brain” (emotional) research techniques. It refers to the practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bring about positive social change.

By going global we face varied cultures and value systems which as such pose challenges to communication, so having a good command over the language will go a long way in quickly overcoming these. In the light of the ever increasing market for business process outsourcing and the spread of IT, countries worldwide have recognized the importance English assumes. With countries like China fast catching up on this trend it becomes all the more important for India to make extra efforts in order to maintain a competitive edge. Using English as a medium of education should not be seen as offensive but should be thought of as an investment towards development.

                                The rural dilemma

The primary focus of FAO’s work in communication for development lies in rural areas, where the expertise and logistics required communicating well with rural communities may seem daunting. Nearly 1000 million people in developing countries more than one third the adult population is illiterate. Rural communities are often remote and difficult to reach, they lack infrastructure and communication systems – such as newspapers, radios, televisions and telephones, as well as meeting rooms, offices and schools that help townsfolk keep abreast of development and functions effectively as informed participants. In rural areas, the challenge is to increase the quality and accessibility of information, to ensure its exchange in appropriate ways, and to elicit more information from rural people themselves in order to guide development planning.

We live in a communication era, with rapid expansion in the reach of mass media, and improved techniques for the interpersonal exchange of ideas. The advent of the cheap transistor radio, for example, has brought this medium to remote corners of even the least developed countries, where a lace of electricity can be overcome by solar powered transmitters and receiver. Video as an example as in decade ago it was a bulky and expensive medium. The basic kit for shooting in black and white included a camera and recorder weighing about 30 kg, a power supply, and often an electrical generator for fieldwork. Total cost: almost Rs50000Now day’s video can be filmed in vivid color using a “camcorder”. A semi-professional unit, including batteries, weighs less than 3 kg, and costs less than Rs15000.

Other example are Traditional and popular media such as folk theatre, dances, puppet shows and popular poetry, as well as rural press linked to literacy programmers, and audiovisual materials, can be highly effective channels for disseminating development information and for stimulating community action.

About the interpersonal communication skills development, field workers need in order to function more effectively as agents of change with rural people. These skills include the use of techniques such as focus group discussions, illustrated discussion tools such as flipcharts that have been pretested to be effective for rural viewers, and other media such as video and audiovisuals that can be used to share ideas and cause reflection, or as part of a training methodology involving presentation, discussion and practice. Interpersonal communication skills can improve activities at all levels, enhancing management, teamwork and the morale of personnel.

Time for communication for development

Whether we come to see village learning centers equipped with a centrally linked computer terminal, or, instead, a more systematic use of traditional media for human development, the use of communication no longer depends on the availability of technology: it depends on the will and decisions of policymakers to exploit its potential. Already communication has been highly exploited for political and commercial aims. Now is the time for communication to be applied to development.

                  Role of Development in Communication

  • Project the future in the present
  • Raise awareness. Meet information needs.
  • Motivates the people for a purpose.
  • Communication is for development of the individual organization, society, nation, country.
  • Communications helps the administration in arriving quick decision and implementation.
  • Good communication is essential for proper planning and coordination.
  • Effective communication has a special role play, particularly in an under developed country like India where most of the workers are illiterate.
  • A Manager’s/ Executive’s success is conditioned by his ability to understand the needs and requirements of both employees and customers.
  • Better communication helps better job performance.
  • Effective and timely communication promotes cordial relations and work culture among the employees for increasing production and creates healthy and happy environment within and outside the organization.

Thus, Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity of communication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory development communication. The need for development communication continues since a large population, over 600 million, lives in rural areas and depends directly on agriculture. They all, and the urban slum dwellers, need government support in different forms.

A development communication policy and programming unit might be located in the decision-making centre of government. Here, it could keep abreast of the most recent national policies and objectives advise decision-makers about communication issues and set the overall priorities for communication work. Within those overall priorities, the unit’s main role could be to guide and support ministries, other development institutions, people’s organizations, and other participants in the development process, in the planning, implementation and evaluation of their communication work.

                              References

http://www.wikipedia.com/developmentcommunication

http://www.worldbank.org/…/DevelopmentCommSourcebook.pdf

http://www.wikipedia.com/developmentcommunication

http://www.wikipedia.org/ participatory development communication

Communication- The action of communicating, a letter & message containing information’s. (Communications) the mean of sending & receiving information.

RAVISH BHARDWAJ

Development is the process of devolving or being devolved, it’s a specified state of Growth and advancement.

Development programmes can only realize their full potential if knowledge and technology are shared effectively, and if populations are motivated and committed to achieve success. Unless people themselves are the driving force of their own development, no amount of investment or provision of technology and inputs will bring about any lasting improvements in their living standards.

Communication is central to this task in many ways. For example, it enables planners, when identifying and formulating development programmes, to consult with people in order to take into account their needs, attitudes and traditional knowledge. Only with communication the project beneficiaries become the principal actors to make development programmes successful.

Helping people at all levels to communicate empowers them to recognize important issues and find common grounds for action, and builds a sense of identity and participation in order to implement their decisions.

On top of that, development involves change, new ways of doing things. Will people have the confidence to make a project work? Will they acquire the new knowledge and skills they need? How can barriers of illiteracy be overcome? Communication media and techniques can be powerful tools to advise people about new ideas and methods, to encourage adoption of those ideas and methods, and to improve training overall.

Communication approaches are also invaluable for improved coordination and teamwork to manage development programmes, and to gain institutional support.

We live in a communication age, and the full impact of communication on development is just starting to be seen. Based on the experience of FAO and other agencies, communication for development has reached the stage where it can have a noticeable and rewarding effect on many development programmes.

  Role of communication

A decisive role can be played by communication in promoting human development in today’s new climate of social change. As the world moves towards greater democracy, decentralization and the market economy, conditions are becoming more favorable for people to start steering their own course of change. But it is vital to stimulate their awareness, participation and capabilities. Communication skills and technology are central to this task, but at present are often underutilized. Policies are needed that encourage effective planning and implementation of communication programmes.

The new development context

Major changes and new emphases have appeared on the development scene. Societies are opening to debate and markets to individual initiative; privatization and entrepreneurship are being encouraged; new technologies are becoming widely available; management of government services is gradually being relocated closer to the users, if not handed over directly to users themselves, in order to cut costs and seek partners more committed to effective implementation. Indeed, a host of structural adjustments are profoundly affecting most aspects of production and human interaction. These structural adjustments make demands, and have direct economic and social effects on people.

Governments of developing countries can no longer fulfill all social and regulatory services by themselves, especially in rural areas. Many economies are overwhelmed by the cost of servicing their foreign debt, and governments are under stringent requirement from international financial institutions to reduce spending. In their quest for greater cost-effectiveness in all their operations, governments must have the active support of, and a greater contribution from, the people. Governments are thus obliged to seek new and perhaps unfamiliar partners, ranging from local leaders to people in a variety of non-governmental organizations. These people are accordingly obliged to shoulder new and perhaps unfamiliar responsibilities.

Furthermore, as we near the end of the century, a number of specific issues have come clearly into focus as being central to socio-economic progress, equity, social stability, to the future of humanity- and perhaps even to its survival.

The environment and its relation to sustainable agricultural development and food production present an enormous challenge. A prime consideration is the proper use and conservation of natural resources. These resources are often degraded at the hands of impoverished rural people who have no immediate alternative for meeting their needs for land on which to grow food, and for fuel wood. Their abuse of forest areas, with the negative consequences of soil erosion and dwindling water resources, will only be halted through new schemes of employment and income generation and through applying conservation techniques. Such solutions, however, will have to be made acceptable to local people, many of whom will need considerable encouragement and training in new skills. The provisions of Agenda 21, which emerged from the UN Conference on the Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro (1992), will only become a reality through large-scale changes in attitudes and behavior in societies worldwide.

  • Population growth is exerting pressure on natural resources, on food production and on the ability of governments to provide basic services and employment opportunities. Population growth depends on choices made by individuals. Helping people to make more informed choices by raising their awareness of the implications of family size and unwanted pregnancy, and of methods of contraception, requires much more than simply sending out messages. Instead it requires learning, from people and their leaders, how to make such issues socially acceptable and worthy of urgent action. Insight into people’s underlying attitudes is needed before they can be helped to change their views.
  • Rural poverty continues to increase in many countries, accelerating urban migration and creating intolerable economic and social problems. The solution, of course, lies in the development of rural areas. Most rural communities are characterized by reliance on traditional knowledge and production systems, based strictly on what has worked for survival in the past. This has led to a view that rural communities are resistant to change, even though their traditional wisdom has been hard-won and its reasoning are sound. Planners need to take this into account, as the first step of any planning exercise. For this and for all rural development activities, communication between local communities and national planners and policy-makers is of vital importance but, unfortunately, in rural areas it is at it’s weakest.
  • ROLE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT is another priority issue. In many countries, women shoulder most of the work in rural areas. Given the opportunity, women have shown themselves again and again to be highly responsive and responsible when helped to mobilize themselves, build upon available resources and produce sustainable results. Women need to learn additional technical and organizational skills and more women are needed at the centre of decision-making. Specific challenges where communication is vital include helping women’s groups to increase their self-determination and to broaden the dialogue between the sexes regarding rights, privileges and responsibilities.

The common denominators – Communication and People

The first common theme running through the development issues just outlined is the human factor: the outcome will be based less on scientific and material inputs than on the people involved. For, even if our understanding of the development process is changing, there can be no doubt that its future shape, its pace, sustainability and ultimate direction – for better or worse – will be determined by people, and the level of their awareness, participation and skills. Investment in scientific and material inputs will bear no fruit without a parallel investment in “human capital” – in informing people, opening up avenues by which they may reach consensus for action, and developing the knowledge and skills needed to put material investments to the best use.

Communication is the second common theme in the issues outlined. For if development can be seen as a fabric woven out of the activities of millions of people, communication represents the essential thread that binds them together.

On the one hand, communication as dialogue and debate occurs spontaneously in any time of social change. The increased freedom of expression in recent times has been almost simultaneous with changes in the global political structure.

On the other hand, it is communication as a deliberate intervention to affect social and economic change that holds the most interesting possibilities. A development strategy that uses communication approaches can reveal people’s underlying attitudes and traditional wisdom, help people to adapt their views and to acquire new knowledge and skills, and spread new social messages to large audiences.

The planned use of communication techniques, activities and media gives people powerful tools both to experience change and actually to guide it. An intensified exchange of ideas among all sectors of society can lead to the greater involvement of people in a common cause. This is a fundamental requirement for appropriate and sustainable development.

The communication technology and know-how are available

We live in a communication era, with rapid expansion in the reach of mass media, and improved techniques for the interpersonal exchange of ideas. The advent of the cheap transistor radio, for example, has brought this medium to remote corners of even the least-developed countries, where a lack of electricity can be overcome by solar-powered transmitters and receivers.

Video provides a good example of the technological advances in the communication field. Little more than a decade ago, video was a bulky and expensive medium. The basic kit for shooting in black and white included a camera and recorder weighing about 30 kg, a power supply, and often an electrical generator for fieldwork. Total cost: almost US$10 000. Now video can be filmed in vivid color using a “camcorder”. A semi-professional unit, including batteries, weighs less than 3 kg, and costs less than US$3 000. The size and price of video equipment drop further every year helping the use of video playback to expand rapidly everywhere, even to villages in remote rural areas.

Preparation of printed materials with type, graphics and photographs, has also been revolutionized. The use of computers for desktop publishing has sharply reduced costs and production time, providing much greater access and versatility.

Traditional and popular media such as folk theatre, dances, puppet shows and popular poetry, as well as rural press linked to literacy programmes, and audiovisual materials, can be highly effective channels for disseminating development information and for stimulating community action.

Much more is now known about the interpersonal communication skills development field workers need in order to function more effectively as agents of change with rural people. These skills include the use of techniques such as focus group discussions, illustrated discussion tools such as flipcharts that have been pretested to be effective for rural viewers, and other media such as video and audiovisuals that can be used to share ideas and cause reflection, or as part of a training methodology involving presentation, discussion and practice. Interpersonal communication skills can improve activities at all levels, enhancing management, teamwork and the morale of personnel.

A look into the future

With such rapid advances in communication technology and know-how, the age of telecommunication for rural development may already be upon us. Solar-powered microwave links for telephone communication, facsimile machines and even satellite links, are increasingly reaching into rural areas of the world and offering the possibility of breaking their traditional isolation for the first time in history.

In fact today the idea is being mooted that telecommunication learning centers could be established in villages of the developing world, with user-friendly computer terminals that would download interactive learning and management information programmes from a central supply, similar to a water or electricity service, with users paying modest charges for the time of actual use. The programmes could be video images, sound and computer-type data. This technology already exists, and the speed with which it is becoming cheaper and more accessible is so rapid that the use of computers in the villages of developing countries may someday be part of a pragmatic strategy to reduce the rural-urban population shift and promote rural development.

Time for communication for development

Whether we come to see village learning centre’s equipped with a centrally linked computer terminal, or, instead, a more systematic use of traditional media for human development, the use of communication no longer depends on the availability of technology: it depends on the will and decisions of policymakers to exploit its potential. Already communication has been highly exploited for political and commercial aims. Now is the time for communication to be applied to development.

For better planning and programme formulation

Defining the model of development according to the need of people by treating people as a stakeholder in the process of development The views of rural people can also guide prospective work plans, preventing them from moving in the wrong direction. For example, agricultural research can be tied directly to what farmers really want and are capable of using. A systematic communication process brings researchers and practitioners together.

A policy of communicating with people intensively before a development programme is even drafted, and taking into account their views, capabilities and needs as they see them, is the best insurance a planner can have.

.

Source-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_communication

http://kiwi6.com/file/n6343hr80w

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Communication Will Light the Way to True Participation In Development

Anuradha                                                                                                                                     ABSTRACT

Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions.

The term “Development Communication” was first coined in 1972 by Nora C. Quarrel, who defines the field as the art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential. Development Communication has been alternatively defined as a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development. It often includes computerized linguistics analysis of verbatim responses to qualitative survey interviews and may, at times also involved consumer psychological “right brain” (emotional) research techniques. It refers to the practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bring about positive social change. A decisive role can be played by communication in promoting human development in today’s new climate of social change. As the world moves towards greater democracy, decentralization and the market economy, conditions are becoming more favorable for the people to start steering their own course of change. But it is vital to stimulate their awareness, participation and capabilities. Communication skills and technology are central to this task, but at present are often underutilized. Policies are needed that encourage effective planning and implementation of communication program.

Introduction:

Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from the Latin word “communis”, meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Feedback is critical to effective communication between parties. The definition of communication is shared in the Webster’s Dictionary as “sending, giving, or exchanging information and ideas,” which is often expressed nonverbally and verbally.

The first major model for communication came in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories. The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person.

                                   Development

Development may refer to:

Contents

1 Land use

2 Science and technology

3 Social sciences

4 International and regional

5 Business and professional

6. Sustainable development

7. International development

8. Economic development

               Communication Development : History

The theories and practices of development communication sprang from the many challenges and opportunities that faced development oriented institutions in the last century. And since these institutions existed in different contexts, different schools of development communication have arisen in different places over time.

Manyozo (2006) suggests that the history field can be broken down into those of six different schools of development communication, with the Bretton Woods school being the dominant paradigm in international literature, and the other schools being the Latin American, Indian, Los Baños, African, and the participatory development communication schools.

The growing interest for these kind of applications is also reflected in the work of the World Bank, which is very active in promoting this field through its Development Communication division and recently (June 2008) published the Development Communication Sourcebook, a resource addressing the history, concepts and practical applications in this discipline. Communication for Social Change, referred to as communication for sustainable social change and development, involves the use of variety of communication techniques to address inefficient systems, processes, or modes of production within a specific location that has not incurred major technological advances. A possible strategy in achieving sustainability and development places the people of the community in the center of the communication process. This technique is also known as the participatory approach where interpersonal communication is exercised through community media. The members of the culture are agents of change as opposed to the outsiders who may provide any necessary tools. Technology then becomes implemented by people in their social and economic contexts and results in a major shaping process. The participatory approach can be combined with three other types of communicative methods to effectively invoke social change. These include: behavior change communication, mass communication, and advocacy communication.

             How the communications help in development?

Different types of mediums can be used in achieving governance, health and sustainable development. Old media can be combined with new media to educate specific populations. Information and communication technologies (ICT’s) in addition to multi-media are able to address visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners and prove to be an important contribution to economic growth. Questions need to be raised about who the stake holders, policy makers, partners and practitioners are and what their goals might be for the community seeking sustainable development. Oftentimes, those who set the agenda are the ones doing the funding for the project and may include international agencies, bilateral agencies, national authorities, NGOs, and local organizations.

Prior to the project, decision makers consider if introducing new technology will disrupt religion, language, political organization, economy, familial relations and social complexity of the targeted society. Other factors have to be acknowledged as well and may include already present policies and legislations, educational systems, service provisions, institutional and organizational constructions (in the forms of corruption, bureaucracy, etc.), socio-demographic and economic aspects, and the physical environment.

Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity of communication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory development communication.

The art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential. Development Communication has been alternatively defined as a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development. It often includes computerized linguistics analysis of verbatim responses to qualitative survey interviews and may, at times also involved consumer psychological “right brain” (emotional) research techniques. It refers to the practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bring about positive social change.

By going global we face varied cultures and value systems which as such pose challenges to communication, so having a good command over the language will go a long way in quickly overcoming these. In the light of the ever increasing market for business process outsourcing and the spread of IT, countries worldwide have recognized the importance English assumes. With countries like China fast catching up on this trend it becomes all the more important for India to make extra efforts in order to maintain a competitive edge. Using English as a medium of education should not be seen as offensive but should be thought of as an investment towards development.

                                The rural dilemma

The primary focus of FAO’s work in communication for development lies in rural areas, where the expertise and logistics required communicating well with rural communities may seem daunting. Nearly 1000 million people in developing countries more than one third the adult population is illiterate. Rural communities are often remote and difficult to reach, they lack infrastructure and communication systems – such as newspapers, radios, televisions and telephones, as well as meeting rooms, offices and schools that help townsfolk keep abreast of development and functions effectively as informed participants. In rural areas, the challenge is to increase the quality and accessibility of information, to ensure its exchange in appropriate ways, and to elicit more information from rural people themselves in order to guide development planning.

We live in a communication era, with rapid expansion in the reach of mass media, and improved techniques for the interpersonal exchange of ideas. The advent of the cheap transistor radio, for example, has brought this medium to remote corners of even the least developed countries, where a lace of electricity can be overcome by solar powered transmitters and receiver. Video as an example as in decade ago it was a bulky and expensive medium. The basic kit for shooting in black and white included a camera and recorder weighing about 30 kg, a power supply, and often an electrical generator for fieldwork. Total cost: almost Rs50000Now day’s video can be filmed in vivid color using a “camcorder”. A semi-professional unit, including batteries, weighs less than 3 kg, and costs less than Rs15000.

Other example are Traditional and popular media such as folk theatre, dances, puppet shows and popular poetry, as well as rural press linked to literacy programmers, and audiovisual materials, can be highly effective channels for disseminating development information and for stimulating community action.

About the interpersonal communication skills development, field workers need in order to function more effectively as agents of change with rural people. These skills include the use of techniques such as focus group discussions, illustrated discussion tools such as flipcharts that have been pretested to be effective for rural viewers, and other media such as video and audiovisuals that can be used to share ideas and cause reflection, or as part of a training methodology involving presentation, discussion and practice. Interpersonal communication skills can improve activities at all levels, enhancing management, teamwork and the morale of personnel.

Time for communication for development

Whether we come to see village learning centers equipped with a centrally linked computer terminal, or, instead, a more systematic use of traditional media for human development, the use of communication no longer depends on the availability of technology: it depends on the will and decisions of policymakers to exploit its potential. Already communication has been highly exploited for political and commercial aims. Now is the time for communication to be applied to development.

                  Role of Development in Communication

  • Project the future in the present
  • Raise awareness. Meet information needs.
  • Motivates the people for a purpose.
  • Communication is for development of the individual organization, society, nation, country.
  • Communications helps the administration in arriving quick decision and implementation.
  • Good communication is essential for proper planning and coordination.
  • Effective communication has a special role play, particularly in an under developed country like India where most of the workers are illiterate.
  • A Manager’s/ Executive’s success is conditioned by his ability to understand the needs and requirements of both employees and customers.
  • Better communication helps better job performance.
  • Effective and timely communication promotes cordial relations and work culture among the employees for increasing production and creates healthy and happy environment within and outside the organization.

Thus, Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity of communication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory development communication. The need for development communication continues since a large population, over 600 million, lives in rural areas and depends directly on agriculture. They all, and the urban slum dwellers, need government support in different forms.

A development communication policy and programming unit might be located in the decision-making centre of government. Here, it could keep abreast of the most recent national policies and objectives advise decision-makers about communication issues and set the overall priorities for communication work. Within those overall priorities, the unit’s main role could be to guide and support ministries, other development institutions, people’s organizations, and other participants in the development process, in the planning, implementation and evaluation of their communication work.

                              References

http://www.wikipedia.com/developmentcommunication

http://www.worldbank.org/…/DevelopmentCommSourcebook.pdf

http://www.wikipedia.com/developmentcommunication

http://www.wikipedia.org/ participatory development communication

 

RESEARCH WORK

Communication will light the way to true participation in development

Communication- The action of communicating, a letter & message containing information’s. (Communications) the mean of sending & receiving information.

RAVISH BHARDWAJ

Development is the process of devolving or being devolved, it’s a specified state of Growth and advancement.

Development programmes can only realize their full potential if knowledge and technology are shared effectively, and if populations are motivated and committed to achieve success. Unless people themselves are the driving force of their own development, no amount of investment or provision of technology and inputs will bring about any lasting improvements in their living standards.

Communication is central to this task in many ways. For example, it enables planners, when identifying and formulating development programmes, to consult with people in order to take into account their needs, attitudes and traditional knowledge. Only with communication the project beneficiaries become the principal actors to make development programmes successful.

Helping people at all levels to communicate empowers them to recognize important issues and find common grounds for action, and builds a sense of identity and participation in order to implement their decisions.

On top of that, development involves change, new ways of doing things. Will people have the confidence to make a project work? Will they acquire the new knowledge and skills they need? How can barriers of illiteracy be overcome? Communication media and techniques can be powerful tools to advise people about new ideas and methods, to encourage adoption of those ideas and methods, and to improve training overall.

Communication approaches are also invaluable for improved coordination and teamwork to manage development programmes, and to gain institutional support.

We live in a communication age, and the full impact of communication on development is just starting to be seen. Based on the experience of FAO and other agencies, communication for development has reached the stage where it can have a noticeable and rewarding effect on many development programmes.

  Role of communication

A decisive role can be played by communication in promoting human development in today’s new climate of social change. As the world moves towards greater democracy, decentralization and the market economy, conditions are becoming more favorable for people to start steering their own course of change. But it is vital to stimulate their awareness, participation and capabilities. Communication skills and technology are central to this task, but at present are often underutilized. Policies are needed that encourage effective planning and implementation of communication programmes.

The new development context

Major changes and new emphases have appeared on the development scene. Societies are opening to debate and markets to individual initiative; privatization and entrepreneurship are being encouraged; new technologies are becoming widely available; management of government services is gradually being relocated closer to the users, if not handed over directly to users themselves, in order to cut costs and seek partners more committed to effective implementation. Indeed, a host of structural adjustments are profoundly affecting most aspects of production and human interaction. These structural adjustments make demands, and have direct economic and social effects on people.

Governments of developing countries can no longer fulfill all social and regulatory services by themselves, especially in rural areas. Many economies are overwhelmed by the cost of servicing their foreign debt, and governments are under stringent requirement from international financial institutions to reduce spending. In their quest for greater cost-effectiveness in all their operations, governments must have the active support of, and a greater contribution from, the people. Governments are thus obliged to seek new and perhaps unfamiliar partners, ranging from local leaders to people in a variety of non-governmental organizations. These people are accordingly obliged to shoulder new and perhaps unfamiliar responsibilities.

Furthermore, as we near the end of the century, a number of specific issues have come clearly into focus as being central to socio-economic progress, equity, social stability, to the future of humanity- and perhaps even to its survival.

The environment and its relation to sustainable agricultural development and food production present an enormous challenge. A prime consideration is the proper use and conservation of natural resources. These resources are often degraded at the hands of impoverished rural people who have no immediate alternative for meeting their needs for land on which to grow food, and for fuel wood. Their abuse of forest areas, with the negative consequences of soil erosion and dwindling water resources, will only be halted through new schemes of employment and income generation and through applying conservation techniques. Such solutions, however, will have to be made acceptable to local people, many of whom will need considerable encouragement and training in new skills. The provisions of Agenda 21, which emerged from the UN Conference on the Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro (1992), will only become a reality through large-scale changes in attitudes and behavior in societies worldwide.

  • Population growth is exerting pressure on natural resources, on food production and on the ability of governments to provide basic services and employment opportunities. Population growth depends on choices made by individuals. Helping people to make more informed choices by raising their awareness of the implications of family size and unwanted pregnancy, and of methods of contraception, requires much more than simply sending out messages. Instead it requires learning, from people and their leaders, how to make such issues socially acceptable and worthy of urgent action. Insight into people’s underlying attitudes is needed before they can be helped to change their views.
  • Rural poverty continues to increase in many countries, accelerating urban migration and creating intolerable economic and social problems. The solution, of course, lies in the development of rural areas. Most rural communities are characterized by reliance on traditional knowledge and production systems, based strictly on what has worked for survival in the past. This has led to a view that rural communities are resistant to change, even though their traditional wisdom has been hard-won and its reasoning are sound. Planners need to take this into account, as the first step of any planning exercise. For this and for all rural development activities, communication between local communities and national planners and policy-makers is of vital importance but, unfortunately, in rural areas it is at it’s weakest.
  • ROLE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT is another priority issue. In many countries, women shoulder most of the work in rural areas. Given the opportunity, women have shown themselves again and again to be highly responsive and responsible when helped to mobilize themselves, build upon available resources and produce sustainable results. Women need to learn additional technical and organizational skills and more women are needed at the centre of decision-making. Specific challenges where communication is vital include helping women’s groups to increase their self-determination and to broaden the dialogue between the sexes regarding rights, privileges and responsibilities.

The common denominators – Communication and People

The first common theme running through the development issues just outlined is the human factor: the outcome will be based less on scientific and material inputs than on the people involved. For, even if our understanding of the development process is changing, there can be no doubt that its future shape, its pace, sustainability and ultimate direction – for better or worse – will be determined by people, and the level of their awareness, participation and skills. Investment in scientific and material inputs will bear no fruit without a parallel investment in “human capital” – in informing people, opening up avenues by which they may reach consensus for action, and developing the knowledge and skills needed to put material investments to the best use.

Communication is the second common theme in the issues outlined. For if development can be seen as a fabric woven out of the activities of millions of people, communication represents the essential thread that binds them together.

On the one hand, communication as dialogue and debate occurs spontaneously in any time of social change. The increased freedom of expression in recent times has been almost simultaneous with changes in the global political structure.

On the other hand, it is communication as a deliberate intervention to affect social and economic change that holds the most interesting possibilities. A development strategy that uses communication approaches can reveal people’s underlying attitudes and traditional wisdom, help people to adapt their views and to acquire new knowledge and skills, and spread new social messages to large audiences.

The planned use of communication techniques, activities and media gives people powerful tools both to experience change and actually to guide it. An intensified exchange of ideas among all sectors of society can lead to the greater involvement of people in a common cause. This is a fundamental requirement for appropriate and sustainable development.

The communication technology and know-how are available

We live in a communication era, with rapid expansion in the reach of mass media, and improved techniques for the interpersonal exchange of ideas. The advent of the cheap transistor radio, for example, has brought this medium to remote corners of even the least-developed countries, where a lack of electricity can be overcome by solar-powered transmitters and receivers.

Video provides a good example of the technological advances in the communication field. Little more than a decade ago, video was a bulky and expensive medium. The basic kit for shooting in black and white included a camera and recorder weighing about 30 kg, a power supply, and often an electrical generator for fieldwork. Total cost: almost US$10 000. Now video can be filmed in vivid color using a “camcorder”. A semi-professional unit, including batteries, weighs less than 3 kg, and costs less than US$3 000. The size and price of video equipment drop further every year helping the use of video playback to expand rapidly everywhere, even to villages in remote rural areas.

Preparation of printed materials with type, graphics and photographs, has also been revolutionized. The use of computers for desktop publishing has sharply reduced costs and production time, providing much greater access and versatility.

Traditional and popular media such as folk theatre, dances, puppet shows and popular poetry, as well as rural press linked to literacy programmes, and audiovisual materials, can be highly effective channels for disseminating development information and for stimulating community action.

Much more is now known about the interpersonal communication skills development field workers need in order to function more effectively as agents of change with rural people. These skills include the use of techniques such as focus group discussions, illustrated discussion tools such as flipcharts that have been pretested to be effective for rural viewers, and other media such as video and audiovisuals that can be used to share ideas and cause reflection, or as part of a training methodology involving presentation, discussion and practice. Interpersonal communication skills can improve activities at all levels, enhancing management, teamwork and the morale of personnel.

A look into the future

With such rapid advances in communication technology and know-how, the age of telecommunication for rural development may already be upon us. Solar-powered microwave links for telephone communication, facsimile machines and even satellite links, are increasingly reaching into rural areas of the world and offering the possibility of breaking their traditional isolation for the first time in history.

In fact today the idea is being mooted that telecommunication learning centers could be established in villages of the developing world, with user-friendly computer terminals that would download interactive learning and management information programmes from a central supply, similar to a water or electricity service, with users paying modest charges for the time of actual use. The programmes could be video images, sound and computer-type data. This technology already exists, and the speed with which it is becoming cheaper and more accessible is so rapid that the use of computers in the villages of developing countries may someday be part of a pragmatic strategy to reduce the rural-urban population shift and promote rural development.

Time for communication for development

Whether we come to see village learning centre’s equipped with a centrally linked computer terminal, or, instead, a more systematic use of traditional media for human development, the use of communication no longer depends on the availability of technology: it depends on the will and decisions of policymakers to exploit its potential. Already communication has been highly exploited for political and commercial aims. Now is the time for communication to be applied to development.

For better planning and programme formulation

Defining the model of development according to the need of people by treating people as a stakeholder in the process of development The views of rural people can also guide prospective work plans, preventing them from moving in the wrong direction. For example, agricultural research can be tied directly to what farmers really want and are capable of using. A systematic communication process brings researchers and practitioners together.

A policy of communicating with people intensively before a development programme is even drafted, and taking into account their views, capabilities and needs as they see them, is the best insurance a planner can have

Source-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_communication

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Communication will light the way through true participation in development; Poonam rani

Abstract

Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions. But communication has played a significant role in development. The term “Development Communication” was first coined in 1972 by Nora C. Quebral, who defines the field as”the art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential.

Development Communication has been alternatively defined as a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development. Defined as the former, it often includes computerized linguistics analysis of verbatim responses to qualitative survey interviews and may, at times also involved consumer psychological “right brain” (emotional) research techniques. Defined at the latter, it refers to the practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bring
about positive social change.

Introduction

Communication has an important role to play in development. Without effective communication, no development can take place. Thus, Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity of communication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory development communication. The need for development communication continues since a large population, over 600 million, lives in rural areas and depends directly on agriculture. They all, and the urban slum dwellers, need government support in different forms.

Development programmes can only realise their full potential if knowledge and technology are shared effectively, and if populations are motivated and committed to achieve success. Unless people themselves are the driving force of their own development, no amount of investment or provision of technology and inputs will bring about any lasting improvements in their living standards.

Communication is central to this task in many ways. For example, it enables planners, when identifying and formulating development programmes, to consult with people in order to take into account their needs, attitudes and traditional knowledge. Only with communication will the project beneficiaries become the principal actors to make development programmes successful.

Helping people at all levels to communicate empowers them to recognise important issues and find common grounds for action, and builds a sense of identity and participation in order to implement their decisions.

On top of that, development involves change, new ways of doing things. Will people have the confidence to make a project work? Will they acquire the new knowledge and skills they need? How can barriers of illiteracy be overcome? Communication media and techniques can be powerful tools to advise people about new ideas and methods, to encourage adoption of those ideas and methods, and to improve training overall.

Communication approaches are also invaluable for improved coordination and teamwork to manage development programmes, and to gain institutional support.

We live in a communication age, and the full impact of communication on development is just starting to be seen. Based on the experience of FAO and other agencies, communication for development has reached the stage where it can have a noticeable and rewarding effect on many development programmes.

Therefore, communication from the government remains highly relevant. In addition to the traditional ways, a new form of communication is being tried by the union government to support its developmental activities, though at a limited scale. Called Public Information Campaigns, public shows are organised in remote areas
where information on social and developmental schemes is given, seminars and workshops are held, villagers and their children are engaged in competitions, messages are given through entertainment shows. In addition, government organisations and corporates involved in rural businesses display their wares and services in stalls lining the main exhibition area. This approach brings various implementing agencies and service / goods providers while the information providers encourage the visitors to make the best use of various schemes and
services available. Some state governments have also adopted this model to take their development schemes to the masses. Community radio is another new medium getting a foothold in rural India, though in patches. NGOs and educational institutions are given license to set up a local community radio station to broadcast information, advisories and messages on developmental aspects. Participation of local community is encouraged. As community radio provides a platform to villagers to broadcast local issues, it has the potential to elicit positive action from local politicians and civil servants.

Well into the 21st century radio has had a strong presence in the development communication research and practice.

Specific issues to be focused on

  • The environment and its relation to sustainable agricultural development and food production present an enormous challenge. A prime consideration is the proper use and conservation of natural resources. These resources are often degraded at the hands of impoverished rural people who have no immediate alternative for meeting their needs for land on which to grow food, and for fuelwood. Their abuse of forest areas, with the negative consequences of soil erosion and dwindling water resources, will only be halted through new schemes of employment and income generation and through applying conservation techniques. Such solutions, however, will have to be made acceptable to local people, many of whom will need considerable encouragement and training in new skills.
  • Population growth is exerting pressure on natural resources, on food production and on the ability of governments to provide basic services and employment opportunities. Population growth depends on choices made by individuals. Helping people to make more informed choices by raising their awareness of the implications of family size and unwanted pregnancy, and of methods of contraception, requires much more than simply sending out messages. Instead it requires learning, from people and their leaders, how to make such issues socially acceptable and worthy of urgent action. Insights into people’s underlying attitudes are needed before they can be helped to change their views.
  • Rural poverty continues to increase in many countries, accelerating urban migration and creating intolerable economic and social problems. The solution, of course, lies in the development of rural areas. Most rural communities are characterised by reliance on traditional knowledge and production systems, based strictly on what has worked for survival in the past. This has led to a view that rural communities are resistant to change, even though their traditional wisdom has been hard-won and its reasoning is sound. Planners need to take this into account, as the first step of any planning exercise. For this, and for all rural development activities, communication between local communities and national planners and policy-makers is of vital importance but, unfortunately, in rural areas it is at its weakest.
  • Malnutrition is both a cause and a consequence of underdevelopment. Recent decades have seen consistent reductions in the daily per caput supply of calories in many countries. The International Conference on Nutrition held in December 1992 drew attention to the fact that more than 780 million people in the world suffer from chronic malnutrition and that, each year, some 13 million children below the age of five die from infectious diseases that can be directly or indirectly attributed to hunger or malnutrition. Nutritional well-being is not just a question of food availability and economics among families, however. It also depends on sufficient knowledge and acceptance of appropriate diets. At the planner’s level, incorporating nutritional concerns into development initiatives for agriculture, food security, forestry, land use, exports and so forth requires an increased awareness of nutritional priorities since these are not spontaneously identified in such disciplines.
  • Woman in development is another priority issue. In many countries, women shoulder most of the work in rural areas. Given the opportunity, women have shown themselves again and again to be highly responsive and responsible when helped to mobilize themselves, build upon available resources and produce sustainable results. Women need to learn additional technical and organisational skills and more women are needed at the centre of decision-making. Specific challenges where communication is vital include helping women’s groups to increase their self-determination and to broaden the dialogue between the sexes regarding rights, privileges and responsibilities.

Role of communication technology

The communication technology and know-how are available

We live in a communication era, with rapid expansion in the reach of mass media, and improved techniques for the interpersonal exchange of ideas. The advent of the cheap transistor radio, for example, has brought this medium to remote corners of even the least-developed countries, where a lack of electricity can be overcome by solar-powered transmitters and receivers.

Video provides a good example of the technological advances in the communication field. Little more than a decade ago, video was a bulky and expensive medium. Preparation of printed materials with type, graphics and photographs, has also been revolutionised. The use of computers for desktop publishing has sharply reduced costs and production time, providing much greater access and versatility.

Traditional and popular media such as folk theatre, dances, puppet shows and popular poetry, as well as rural press linked to literacy programmes, and audiovisual materials, can be highly effective channels for disseminating development information and for stimulating community action.

Much more is now known about the interpersonal communication skills development field workers need in order to function more effectively as agents of change with rural people. These skills include the use of techniques such as focus group discussions, illustrated discussion tools such as flipcharts that have been pretested to be effective for rural viewers, and other media such as video and audiovisuals that can be used to share ideas and cause reflection, or as part of a training methodology involving presentation, discussion and practice. Interpersonal communication skills can improve activities at all levels, enhancing management, teamwork and the morale of personnel.

Time for communication for development

Whether we come to see village learning centres equipped with a centrally linked computer terminal, or, instead, a more systematic use of traditional media for human development, the use of communication no longer depends on the availability of technology: it depends on the will and decisions of policymakers to exploit its potential. Already communication has been highly exploited for political and commercial aims. Now is the time for communication to be applied to development.

  • for better planning and programme formulation

In practical terms, effective planning must make a deliberate effort to determine what people want to do, can do and can continue to do in a sustainable way. To find this out, communication techniques go far beyond the simple question-and-answer survey. Meaningful discussion, generated by people trained in interpersonal communication skills, and audiovisual tools, such as video or radio, can help the community to identify its true problems and priorities and where its capabilities and needs lie. This self-analysis can help a community to generate realistic proposals for new development initiatives and stimulates tremendous interest to have these initiatives succeed.

The views of rural people can also guide prospective work plans, preventing them from moving in the wrong direction. A policy of communicating with people intensively before a development programme is even drafted, and taking into account their views, capabilities and needs as they see them, is the best insurance a planner can have.

  • for changing life-styles

Rural populations and women in particular, find it increasingly difficult to cope with rapidly changing social conditions, which often lead to the development of unsettling life-styles. For instance, in societies where marriage and childbearing no longer go together, the social and economic cost of teenage pregnancies weighs heavily on people’s, and the nation’s, resources. In others, rural youth, often from fatherless homes, increasingly rebels against parental poverty. Pressed by peers, teenagers often drop out of school, fall for drugs, or end up in the gangs of city slums.

Communication can focus on the long and sensitive process of changing behaviour and life-styles. Quite recent communication research methodologies make it possible to gain insight into the underlying reasons why people adopt a certain life-style.

Reference

http://www.wikipedia.com/developmentcommunication

http://www.fao.org/docrep/t1815e/t1815e03.htm

the idea for research paper is from site: http://www.ijpbs.net/vol-3/issue-1/bio/B-25.pdf

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Hello world!

Welcome to WordPress.com. After you read this, you should delete and write your own post, with a new title above. Or hit Add New on the left (of the admin dashboard) to start a fresh post.

Here are some suggestions for your first post.

  1. You can find new ideas for what to blog about by reading the Daily Post.
  2. Add PressThis to your browser. It creates a new blog post for you about any interesting  page you read on the web.
  3. Make some changes to this page, and then hit preview on the right. You can always preview any post or edit it before you share it to the world.
Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment